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Big Picture

10 Maxims: The Research Support

What We've Learned So Far About How Children Learn to Read

Maxim 1: Almost all children learn to speak naturally; reading and writing must be taught.

Maxim 2: Literacy begins at birth. It is root ed in early social interactions and experiences that include regular exposure to oral language and print. Strong root s tend to produce stronger readers.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxims.

Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Clonan, S., Shaywitz, B., et al. (2004). Effects of intensive reading remediation for second and third graders. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 444-461.

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. (1997). Direct instruction in reading (3rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ. Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Chall, J. S. (1983). Learning to read: the great debate (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Denton, C.A., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Bryan, D., Reed, D. (2012) Effective instruction for middle school students with reading difficulties: The reading teacher’s sourcebook. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press. 

Foorman, B. R. (1995b). Research on “the great debate”: Code-oriented versus whole language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24, 376-392.

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In B. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 243-264). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J. Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1) 37–55.

Foorman, B. (Ed.). (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale. Baltimore: York Press.

Fletcher, J.M. and G.R. Lyon. (in press). Reading: A research-based approach. Palo Alto, Calif.: Hoover Institute.

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology 90, 1-15.

Gough, P. B., & Hillinger, M. L. (1980). Learning to read: An unnatural act. Bulletin of the Orton Society, 30, 179-196.

Gough, P. B., Alford, J. A., and Holley-Wilcox, P. (1981). Words and context s. Perception of Print: Reading Research in Experimental Psychology, edited by O.J. Tzeng and H. Singer. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum

Gough, P. B., Juel, C., and Griffith, P. (1992). Reading, spelling, and the othographic cipher.  Reading Acquisition, edited by P. B. Gough, L. C. Ehri, and R. Trieman. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Iversen, S., & Tunmer, W. (1993). Phonological processing skills and the reading recovery program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 112-126.

Just, C., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review 87, 329-354.

Kavanagh, J.F., & Mattingly, I.G.  (Eds.), Language by Ear and by Eye: The Relationships Between Speech and Reading. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1972. 

King, R., & Torgesen, J. (2006). Improving the effectiveness of reading instruction in one elementary school: A description of the process. P. Blaunstein & R. Lyon (Eds.), It doesn’t have to be this way. (pp. 1-26) Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Liberman, A. M. (1992). The relation of speech to reading and writing. Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

Liberman, I. Y., Liberman, A. M. (1990). Whole language vs. code emphasis: Underlying assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia 40, 51–76

Lyon, G. R., Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of Learning Disabilities 30(6), 578-88.

Lyon, G. R. (1998). Why reading is not a natural process. Educational Leadership, 55(6), 14-18.

Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Chhabra, V., & Adams, M. J. (2005). Evidence-based reading policy in the United States: How scientific research informs instructional practices. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, (8), 209-250.

Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. Readings in Research Quarterly, 40, 148-182.

McCardle, P., & Chhabra, V. (2004). The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Mehta, P. D., Foorman, B. R., Branum-Martin, L., & Taylor, W. P. (2005). Literacy as a unidimensional multilevel construct: Validation, sources of influence, and implications in a longitudinal study in grades 1 to 4. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 85-116.

Moats, L. C. (1995). The missing foundation in teacher preparation. American Educator, 19(9), 43–51.

Moats, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “scientifically-based reading instruction” isn’t. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.

Moats, L. C. & Lyon, G. R. (1996). Wanted: Teachers with knowledge of language. Topics in Language Disorders, (16) 73-86.    

Ramona T. Pittman, Shuai Zhang, Emily Binks-Cantrell, Alida Hudson, R., and Malatesha J.(2019). Teachers’ knowledge about language constructs related to literacy skills and student achievement in low socio-economic status schools. Dyslexia, 26(2), 200-219.

Rashotte, C. A., MacPhee, K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2001). The effectiveness of a group reading instruction program with poor readers in multiple grades. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, (24) 119-134.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2(2), 31-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.00004

Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The work of the eyes. The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice.

Reichle, E. D., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (2006). E-Z reader: A cognitive-control, serial-attention model of eye-movement behavior during reading. Cognitive Systems Research, 7 (1), 4-22.

Ryder, J. F., Tunmer, W. E., & Greaney, K. T. (2008). Explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemically based decoding skills as an intervention strategy for struggling readers in whole language classrooms. Reading and Writing, 21, 349-369.

Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2004). The new science of reading and its implications for the classroom. Education Canada, 44(1), 20-23.

Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). The science of reading and dyslexia . Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 7(3),158-166.

Stahl, S. A., McKenna, M. C, & Pagnucco, J. R. (1994). The effects of whole-language instruction: An update and a reappraisal. Educational Psychologist, 29, 275-186.

Stanovich, K.E. (1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291. http://www.keithstanovich.com/Site/Research_on_Reading_files/RdTch93.pdf

Stanovich, K. (2000). Progress in understanding reading. New York: Guilford.

Stanovich, K.E., R. F. West, and D. J. Freeman. (1981). A Longitudinal Study of Sentence Context Effects in Second-grade Children: Tests of an Interactive-Compensatory Model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 32, 402-433.

Vellutino, F. R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Snowling, M. J.; Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia ): what have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, 2.

Vellutino, F. R. (1991). Introduction to three studies on reading acquisition: convergent findings on theoretical foundations of code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), 437-443.

Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192

Wren, S. (2015). Ten Myths About Learning to Read. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from https://www.readingrockets.org/article/ten-myths-about-learning-read

teal arch

Maxim 3: All good readers are good decode rs. Decoding should be taught until children can accurately and independently read new words. Decoding depends on phonemic awareness : a child’s ability to identify individual speech sounds. Decoding is the on-ramp for word recognition

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Aaron, P. G., Joshi, R. M., Boulware-Gooden, R., & Bentum, K. (2008). Diagnosis and treatment of reading disabilities based on the component model of reading: An alternative to the discrepancy model of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 67-84.

Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adams, M. J. (1998). The Three-cueing system . In F. Lear and J. Osborn (Eds.), Literacy for All in Teaching and Learning, 73-99. New York: Guilford Press. 

Adolf, S. M., Catts, H. W., & Little, T. D. (2006). Should the simple view of reading include a fluency component? Reading and Writing, 19, 933–958.

Archer, A. L., Gleason, M. M., & Vachon, V. L. (2003). Decoding and fluency : Foundation skills for struggling older readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 89-101.

Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read — a causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421.

Barth, A. E, Catts, H. W., & Anthony, J. L. (2009) The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers: a latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing, 22, 567-590.

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002) Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2007). Increasing young low-income children’s oral vocabulary repertoires through rich and focused instruction. Elementary School Journal, 107(3), 251-273.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2008). Creating robust vocabulary: Frequently asked questions and extended examples (1st ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Omanson, R. (1987). The effects and uses of diverse vocabulary instructional techniques (1st ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Berne, J. I., & Blachowicz, C. Z. (2008). What reading teachers say about vocabulary instruction: voices from the classroom. Reading Teacher, 62(4), 314-323.

Bowers, J. S., & Bowers, P. N. (2017). Beyond phonics : The case for teaching children the logic of the english selling system. Educational Psychologist, 52, 124–141. 2017

Bowers, J. S., and Bowers, P. N. (in press). Progress in reading instruction requires a better understanding of the English spelling system. Current Directions in Psychological Science

Brady, S. (2011). Efficacy of phonics teaching for reading outcomes: Implications from Post-NRP research. S. Brady, D. Braze, & C Fowler. (Eds.), Explaining Individual Differences in Reading (pp. 69-96), London: Psychology Press.

Braze, D., Katz, L., Magnuson, J. S., Mencl, W. E., Tabor, W., Van Dyke, J. A., & Shankweiler, D. P. (2016). Vocabulary does not complicate the simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 29(3), 435–451. 

Butterfuss, R., & Kendeou, P. (2018). The role of executive functions in reading comprehension. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 801–826. 

Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsl ey, R. (1995). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A 2- and 3-year follow-up and a new preschool trial.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 488–503. 

Cabell, S. Q., & Hwang, H. (2020). Building content knowledge to boost comprehension in the primary grades. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S1), S99–S107. 

Cartwright, K. B. (2002). Cognitive development and reading: The relation of reading-specific multiple classification skill to reading comprehension in elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 56–63. 

Cartwright, K. B. (2015). Executive skills and reading comprehension: A guide for educators. New York, NY: Guilford 

Cartwright, K. B., Bock, A. M., Clause, J. H., Coppage August, E. A., Saunders, H. G., & Schmidt, K. J. (2020). Near- and far-transfer effects of an executive function intervention for 2nd to 5th grade struggling readers. Cognitive Development, 56, Article 100932

Cartwright, K. B., Coppage, E. A., Lane, A. B., Singleton, T., Marshall, T. R., & Bentivegna, C. (2017). Cognitive flexibility deficits in children with specific reading comprehension difficulties. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, 33–44. 

Cartwright, K. B., & Duke, N. K. (2019). The DRIVE model of reading: Making the complexity of reading accessible. The Reading Teacher, 73(1), 7–15. 

Cartwright, K. B., Lee, S. A., Taboada Barber, A., DeWyngae rt, L. U., Lane, A. B., & Singleton, T. (2020). Contribution of executive function and intrinsic motivation to university students’ reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(3), 345–369. 

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018).  Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Catts, H. W. (2018). The simple view of reading: Advancements and false impressions. Remedial and Special Education, 39(5), 317–323. 

Calhoon, M. B., (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition of middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(5), 424-433.

Calhoon, M. B., Sandow, A. & Hunter, C. V. (2010) Reorganizing the instructional reading components: Could there be a better way to design remedial reading programs to maximize middle school students with reading disabilities’ response to treatment? Annals of Dyslexia, 60 (1), 57-85.

Carlisl e, J. (2004) Morphological processes that influence learning to read. In C.A. Stone, E.R. Silliman, B.J. Ehren, and K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and Disorders, 318-339. New York: Guilford.

Carlisl e, J. F. (2010). An integrative review of the effects of instruction in morphological awareness on literacy achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(4), 464-487.

Chall, J. S. (1983). Learning to read: the great debate (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: relative contributions of word recognition , language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading,10(3), 277-299.

Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2012). Multiple bases for comprehension difficulties: The potential of cognitive and neurobiological profiling for validation of subtypes and development of assessments. In J.P. Sabatini, T. O’Reilly, & E.R. Albro (Eds.), Reaching an understanding: innovations in how we view reading assessment. 101–116. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Duff, D., Tomblin, J., & Catts, H. (2015). The influence of reading on vocabulary growth: A case for a Matthew effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(3), 853.

Denton, C. A., Barth, A. E. , Fletcher, J.M. , Wexler, J. , Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Romain, M., & Francis, D. J. (2011). The Relations Among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students with Reading Difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15 (2), 109-135. 

Duke, N. K., & Cartwright, K. B. (2019). Implications of the DRIVE model of reading: Making the complexity of reading actionable. The Reading Teacher, 73(1), 123–128. 

Ecalle, J., Dujardin, E., Gomes, C., Cros, L., & Magnan, A. (2021). Decoding , fluency and reading comprehension: Examining the nature of their relationships in a large-scale study with first graders. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 37(5), 444-461.

Ehri, L. C. (1998). Grapheme -phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. L. Matsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy, 3-40. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ehri, L.C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167–188. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0902_4

Ehri, L.C. (2020). The Science of Learning to Read Words: A Case for Systematic Phonics Instruction Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S1), S45–S60. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.334

Ehri, L. C. (2004). Teaching phonemic awareness and phonics : An explanation of the national reading panel meta-analysis. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research, 153-186. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Ehri, L .C. (2014). Orthographic mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5–21. 

Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Willows, D. M., Schuster, B. V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(3), 250–2

Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Stahl, S.A., & Willows, D.M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Re­search, 71(3), 393–447. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071003393

Ehri, L., & Snowling, M. (2004). Developmental variation in word recognition . In A. C. Stone, E. R. Silliman, B. J. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: development and disorders, 443-460. New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: from identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press. 

Gough, P. B., Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding , reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6-10. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/074193258600700104

Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Fowler, A. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1990). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology86 (1) 6.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Barnes, M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D.J., Olson, R. K., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A., 2002. Classification of learning disabilities: an evidence-based evaluation.  Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 185-250.

Foorman, B. R. (1994). The relevance of a connectionist model of reading for “the great debate.” Educational Psychology Review, 6, 25-47.

Foorman, B. R., & Petscher, Y. (2018). Decomposing the variance in reading comprehension to reveal the unique and common effects of language and decoding . JoVE Journal, 140.

Foorman, B. R., Wu, Y.C., Quinn, J. M., & Petscher, Y. (2020). How do latent decoding and language predict latent reading comprehension across two years in grades 5, 7, and 9? Reading and Writing, 33(9).

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: from identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Francis, D. J., Kulesz, P. A., & Benoit, J. S. (2018). Extending the simple view of reading to account for variation within readers and across texts: The complete view of reading (CVRi). Remedial and Special Education, 39(5), 274–288.

Georgiou, G. K., Das, J. P., & Hayward, D. (2009). Revisiting the “simple view of reading” in a group of children with poor reading comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(1), 76–84.

Gnaedinger, E. K., Hund, A. M., & Hesson-McInnis, M. S. (2016). Reading-specific flexibility moderates the relation between reading strategy use and reading comprehension during the elementary years. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(4), 233–246. 

Goodwin, A. P., & Ahn, S. (2010). A meta-analysis of morphological interventions: effects on literacy achievement of children with literacy difficulties. Annals of Dyslexia, 60, 183–208. 

Gottardo, A., Mirza, A., Koh, P. W., Ferreira, A., & Javier, C. (2018). Unpacking listening comprehension: The role of vocabulary , morphological awareness, and syntactic knowledge in reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 31(8), 1741–1764. 

Gough, P. B., Hoover, W. A., & Peterson, C. L. (1996). Some observations on a simple view of reading. In C. Cornoldi & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension difficulties: Processes and intervention, 1–13. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding , reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/074193258600700104

Guajardo, N. R., & Cartwright, K. B. (2016). The contribution of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function to pre-readers’ language comprehension and later reading awareness and comprehension in elementary school. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 27–45.

Guthrie, J. T., & Klauda, S. L. (2014). Effects of classroom practices on reading comprehension, engagement, and motivations for adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly, 49(4), 387–416. 

Hebert, M., Bohaty, J. J., Nelson, J. R., & Brown, J. (2016). The effects of text structure instruction on expository reading comprehension: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(5), 609–629. 

Hjetland, H. N., Brinchmann, E. I., Scherer, R., Hulme, C., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2020). Preschool pathways to reading comprehension: A systematic meta-analytic review. Educational Research Review, 30, Article 100323. 

Hart, B., & Risl ey, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul Brookes.

Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deshler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J., Mark, C. A., et al. (2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools? Learning Disability Quarterly, 32, 21-38.

Hogan, T. P., Adlof, S. M., & Alonzo, C. N. (2014). On the importance of listening comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3), 19.

Hoover, W. A., & Tunmer, W. E. (2020). The cognitive foundations of reading and its acquisition. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Hwang, H. (2020). Early general knowledge predicts English reading growth in bilingual and monolingual students throughout the elementary years. Elementary School Journal, 121(1), 154–178. 

International Dyslexia Association. (2018). Scarborough’s reading rope: A groundbreaking infographic. The Examiner, 7(2).

Jalongo, M., & Sobolak, M. J. (2011). Supporting young children’s vocabulary growth: The challenges, the benefits, and evidence-based strategies. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(6), 421-429.

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Hairrell, A., Rupley, W., & Simmons, D. (2011). The state of vocabulary research. Literacy Research and Instruction, 50(4), 253-271.

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Kearns, D. M., & Al Ghanem, R. (2019). The role of semantic information in children’s word reading: Does meaning affect readers’ ability to say polysyllabic words aloud? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(6), 933–956. 

Kershaw, S., & Schatschneider, C. (2012). A latent variable approach to the simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 433–464. 

Kieffer, M. J., Vukovic, R. K., & Berry, D. (2013). Roles of attention shifting and inhibitory control in fourth-grade reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(4), 333–348. 

Kim, Y.S.G. (2017). Why the simple view of reading is not simplistic: Unpacking component skills of reading using a direct and indirect effect model of reading (DIER). Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(4), 310–333. 

Kirby, J. R., Deacon, S. H., Bowers, P. N., Izenberg, L., Wade-Woolley, L., & Parrila, R. (2012). Children’s morphological awareness and reading ability. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 389–410. 

Knudsen, H. B. S., López, K., & Archibald, L. M. (2018). The contribution of cognitive flexibility to children’s reading comprehension — the case for Danish. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(S1), S130–S148.

Kuhn, M. R., Schwa nenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency : Automaticity , prosody , and definitions of fluency . Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230– 251. 

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Language and Reading Research Consortium. (2015). Learning to read: should we keep things simple? Reading Research Quarterly, 50(2), 151–169. 

Language and Reading Research Consortium, Jiang, H., & Farquharson, K. (2018). Are working memory and behavioral attention equally important for both reading and listening comprehension? A developmental comparison. Reading and Writing, 31(7), 1449–1477. 

Li, M., Koh, P. W., Geva, E., Joshi, R. M., & Chen, X. (2020). The componential model of reading in bilingual learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(8), 1532–1545. 

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Lubliner, S., & Smetana, L. (2005). The effects of comprehensive vocabulary instruction on Title I students’ metacognitive word-learning skills and reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 37(2), 163-200.

Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., & Schatschneider, C. (2018). Examining the simple view of reading with elementary school children: Still simple after all these years. Remedial and Special Education, 39(5), 260–273. 

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Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, S. L., Frijters, J. C., Steinbach, K. A., & De Palma, M. (2000). Components of effective remediation for developmental reading disabilities: Combining phonological and strategy -based instruction to improve outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 263–283.

Lysaker, J.T., Tonge, C., Gauson, D., & Miller, A. (2011). Reading and social imagination: What relationally oriented reading instruction can do for children. Reading Psychology, 32(6), 520–566. 

Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

McDonald Connor, C., Piasta, S. B., Fishman, B., Glasney, S., Schatschneider, C., Crowe, E., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). Individualizing student instruction precisely: Effects of child x instruction interactions on first graders’ literacy development. Child Development, 80(1), 77-100. 

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Mehta, P. D., Foorman, B. R., Branum-Martin, L., & Taylor, W. P. (2005). Literacy as a unidimensional multilevel construct: Validation, sources of influence, and implications in a longitudinal study in grades 1 to 4. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 85-116.

Manoli, P., & Papadopoulou, M. (2012). Reading strategies versus reading skills: Two faces of the same coin. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 817–821.  

McArthur, G., Castles, A., Kohnen, S., Larsen, L., Jones, K., Anandakumar, T., & Banales, E. (2015). Sight word and phonics training in children with dyslexia . Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(4), 391–407. 

McBreen, M., & Savage, R. (2020). The impact of motivational reading instruction on the reading achievement and motivation of students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review. Advance online publication.

Melby-Lervag, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270–291. 

Mitchell, A. M., & Brady, S. A. (2013). The effect of vocabulary knowledge on novel word identification. Annals of Dyslexia, 63(3/4), 201– 216. 

Moats, L., Bennett, K., & Cohen, A. (2018). Develop your teachers into literacy experts. [Webinar]. Retrieved from https://www.voyagersopris.com/docs/default-source/webinar-series/webinar_slides_lmoats_031418.pdf?sfvrsn=7e811572_2

Morris, R., Lovett, M., Wolf, M., Sevcik, R., Steinbach, K., Frijters, J., & Shapiro, M. (n.d.). Multiple-component remediation for developmental reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(2), 99-127.

Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D.P ., Katz, L., Francis, D. J. and Shaywitz, B. A. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), p.347.

Morris, D., Meyer, C., Trathen, W., McGee, J., Vines, N., Stewart, T., & Schlagal, R. (2017). The simple view, instructional level, and the plight of struggling fifth-/sixth-grade readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 33(3), 278–289. 

Muijselaar, M. M. L., Swart, N. M., Steenbeek-Planting, E. G., Droop, M., Verhoeven, L., & de Jong, P. F. (2017). Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(3), 194–209.

Nation, K. (2019). Children’s reading difficulties, language, and reflections on the simple view of reading. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 24(1), 47-–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404158.2019.1609272Nouwens, S., Groen, M. A., Kleemans, T., & Verhoeven, L. (2020). How executive functions contribute to reading comprehension. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 169–192. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32441782/

Nagy, W., & Townsend, D. (2012). Words as tools: learning academic vocabulary as language acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(1), 91-108

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Report of the National Reading Panel. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Nippold, M. (2015). Call for studies in implementation science: improving reading compre-hension in school-aged children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 46, 65-67.

Norton, E. S., & Wolf, M. (2012). Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency : Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 427-452. 

Oakhill, J. & Cain, J. (2012). The precursors of reading ability in young readers: Evidence from a four-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(2), 91-121.i

Okkinga, M., van Steensel, R., van Gelderen, A. J. S., van Schooten, E., Sl eegers, P. J. C., & Arends, L.R. (2018). Effectiveness of reading-strategy interventions in whole classrooms: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 1215–1239.

Ouellette, G., & Beers, A. (2010). A not-so-simple view of reading: How oral vocabulary and visual-word recognition complicate the story. Reading and Writing, 23, 189–208. 

Ouellette, G., & Harris, K. R. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: the role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Perfetti, C. (2007) Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11 (4), 357-383.

Perfetti, C. (2011) Phonology is critical in reading: But a phonological deficit is not the only source of low reading skill. In S. Brady, D. Braze, and C. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence, 153-171. New York: Psychology Press.

Perfetti, C., & Stafura, J. (2014). Word knowledge in a theory of reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 22–37. 

Perfetti, C. & Adlof, S. M. (2012) Reading comprehension: A conceptual framework from word meaning to text meaning. In J.P. Sabatini, E.R.Albro, & T. O’Reilly (Eds.), Measuring up: advances in how to assess reading ability, 3-20. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.

Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency : Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58(6), 510–519. 

Pugh, K. R., Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Constable, R. T., Skudlarski, P., Fulbright, R. K., Bronen, R. A., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Fletcher, J. M. , & Gore, J. C. (1996). Cerebral organization of component processes in reading. Brain, 119(4), 1221-1238

Quinn, J. M., Wagner, R. K., Petscher, Y., & Lopez, D. (2015). Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study. Child Development, 86(1), 159-175.

Rashotte, C. A., MacPhee, K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2001). The effectiveness of a group reading instruction program with poor readers in multiple grades. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 24, 119-134.

Reynolds, B. L., & Ding, C. (2023). The predictive effects of reading speed and positive affect on first and second language incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading an authentic novel. Applied Linguistics Review.

Roman, A. A., Kirby, J. R. Parrila, R. K., Wade-Woolley, L., Deacon, S.H. (2009) Toward a comprehensive view of the skills involved in word reading in Grades 4, 6, and 8. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102(1), 96-113.

Seidenberg, M. S., & McClelland, J. L. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523-568.

Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N. K., Pearson, P. D., Schatschneider, C., & Torgesen, J. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: a practice guide (NCEE 2010-4038). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Katz, L., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Brady, S., et al. (1999). Comprehension and decoding : patterns of association in children with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 69-94.

Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Katz, L., Fowler, A .E., Liberman, A. M., Brady, S. A., Thornton, R., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L., Fletcher, J. M. and Stuebing, K. K. (1995). Cognitive profiles of reading- disabled children: comparison of language skills in phonology, morphology , and syntax Psychological Science, 6(3),149-156.

Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Katz, L., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Brady, S., Fowler, A., Dreyer, L. G., Marchione, K. E., Shaywitz, S. E. and Shaywitz, B. A. (1999). Comprehension and decoding : patterns of association in children with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(1), 69-94.

Snow, C.E. (2018). Simple and not-so-simple views of reading. Remedial and Special Education, 39(5), 313– 316. 

Sobolak, M. J. (2011). Modifying robust vocabulary instruction for the benefit of low- socioeconomic students. Reading Improvement, 48(1), 14-23.

Stanovich, E. (1984). The interactive-compensatory model of reading: A confluence of developmental, experimental, and educational psychology. Remedial and Special Education, 5(3), 11-19.

Stanovich, E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21.

Stanovich, K. E. & Siegel, L. S. (1994) Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 24-53.

Steinle, P. K., Stevens, E., & Vaughn, S. (2022). Fluency interventions for struggling readers in grades 6 to 12: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 55(1), 3-21.

Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192

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Maxim 4: Fluent readers can instantly and accurately recognize most words in a text. They can read with expression and at an appropriate rate for their age. Reading fluency requires comprehension AND it supports comprehension.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Archer, A. L., Gleason, M. M., & Vachon, V.L. (2003). Decoding and fluency : Foundation skills for struggling older readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 89-101.

Barth, A. E, Catts, H. W., & Anthony, J. L. (2009). The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers: a latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing, 22, 567-590.

Bashir, A. S., & Hook, P. E. (2009). Fluency : A key link between word identification and comprehension. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 196-200. 

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002) Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Cutting, L. E., Materek, A., Cole, C., Levine, T. M., & Mahone, E. M. (2009). Effects of fluency , oral language , and executive function on reading comprehension performance. Annals of Dyslexia, 59, 34-54. 

Denton, C. A., Barth, A. E., Fletcher, J.M., Wexler, J. , Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Romain, M., & Francis, D. J. (2011) The relations among oral and silent reading fluency and comprehension in middle school: Implications for identification and instruction of students with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15 (2), 109-135. 

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency -based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.

Hudson, A., Koh, P. W., Moore, K. A., & Binks-Cantrell, E. (2020). Fluency interventions for elementary students with reading difficulties: A synthesis of research from 2000–2019. Education Sciences, 10(3), 52.

Joseph, L. M., & Schisl er, R. (2009). Should adolescents go back to the basics? A review of teaching word reading skills to middle and high school students. Remedial and Special Education, 30(3), 131-147.

Kim, Y. S., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., & Foorman, B. (2010). Does growth rate in oral reading fluency matter in predicting reading comprehension achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 652-667. 

Kim, Y. S., Wagner, R. K., & Foster, E. (2011). Relations among oral reading fluency , silent reading fluency , and reading comprehension: a latent variable study of first grade readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 338-362. 

Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310.

Kocaarsl an, M. (2021). The relationships between oral reading fluency , sustained attention, working memory, and text comprehension in the third-grade students. Psychology in the Schools, 59, 744-764.

Kuhn, M., Schwa nenflugel, E., & Meisinger, E. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency : Automaticity , prosody , and definitions of fluency . Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 230-251.

Kuhn, M. R., Schwa nenflugel, P. J., Morris, R. D., Morrow, L. M., Woo, D. G., Meisinger, E. B., Sevcik, R. A., Bradley, B. A., & Stahl, S. A. (2006). Teaching children to become fluent and automatic readers. Journal of Literacy Research, 38, 357-387.

Naveenkumar, N., Georgiou, G. K., Vieira, A. P. A., Romero, S., & Parrila, R. (2022). A systematic review on quality indicators of randomized control trial reading fluency intervention studies. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 38(4), 359-378.

Rasinski, T.V. (2006). A brief history of reading fluency . In S. Samuels & A. Farstrup (Eds.) What research has to say about fluency instruction, (pp.70-93). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Rasinski, T., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: method, materials, and evidence. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25, 192-204.

Rasinski, T., Paige, D., Rains, C., Stewart, F., Julovich, B., Prenkert, D., & Nichols, W. D. (2017). Effects of intensive fluency instruction on the reading proficiency of third-grade struggling readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 33(6), 519-532.

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N., Linek, W., & Sturtevant, E. (1994). Effects of fluency development on urban second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 158-164. 

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N. D., McKeon, C. A., Wilfong, L. G., Friedauer, J. A., & Heim, P. (2005). Is reading fluency a key for successful high school reading? Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 54, 22-27.

Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Katz, L., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Brady, S., Fowler, A., Dreyer, L. G., Marchione, K. E., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1999). Comprehension and decoding : patterns of association in children with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(1), 69-94.

Silverman, R. D., Speece, D. L., & Harring, J. R. (2013). Fluency has a role in the simple view of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 108-133.

Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Concepts in developmental theories of reading skill: Cognitive resources, automaticity , and modularity. Developmental Review, 10, 72-100

Steinle, P. K., Stevens, E., & Vaughn, S. (2022). Fluency interventions for struggling readers in grades 6 to 12: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 55(1), 3-21.

Vander Stappen, C., & Reybroeck, M. V. (2018). Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming are independent phonological competencies with specific impacts on word reading and spelling: An intervention study. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 320.

Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192

Walczyk, J. J., & Griffith‐Ross, D. A. (2007). How important is reading skill fluency for comprehension? The Reading Teacher, 60(6), 560-569.

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Maxim 5: Comprehension—the goal of reading—draws on multiple skills and strengths, including a solid foundation of vocabulary and background knowledge

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Archer, A. L., Gleason, M. M., & Vachon, V.L. (2003). Decoding and fluency : Foundation skills for struggling older readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 89-101.

Barth, A E, Catts, H. W., & Anthony, J. L. (2009). The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers: A latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing, 22, 567-590.

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42. 

Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: Relative contributions of word recognition , language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 277-299.

Cutting, L. E., Materek, A., Cole, C., Levine, T. M., & Mahone, E. M. (2009). Effects of fluency , oral language , and executive function on reading comprehension performance. Annals of Dyslexia, 59, 34-54. 

Chard, D. J., Vaughn S., & Tyler, B. J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(5), 389–406.

Denton, C. A., Barth, A. E., Fletcher, J.M., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Romain, M., & Francis, D. J. (2011) The relations among oral and silent reading fluency and comprehension in middle school: Implications for identification and instruction of students with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15 (2), 109-135. 

Ecalle, J., Dujardin, E., Gomes, C., Cros, L., & Magnan, A. (2021). Decoding , fluency and reading comprehension: examining the nature of their relationships in a large-scale study with first graders. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 37(5), 444-461.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: a theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256. 

Gelzheiser, L. M., Scanlon, D., Vellutino, F., Hallgren-Flynn, L., & Schatschneider, C. (2011). Effects of the interactive strategies approach—Extended: A responsive and comprehensive intervention for intermediate-grade struggling readers. Elementary School Journal, 112(2), 280–306. 

Kocaarsl an, M. (2021). The relationships between oral reading fluency , sustained attention, working memory, and text comprehension in the third-grade students. Psychology in the Schools, 59, 744-764.

Lubliner, S., & Smetana, L. (2005). The effects of comprehensive vocabulary instruction on Title I students’ metacognitive word-learning skills and reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 37(2), 163-200.

Lyon, G. R. (1995). Towards a definition of dyslexia . Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 3-27.

Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia . Annals of Dyslexia, 1-14.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Report of the National Reading Panel. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Nevo, E., Vaknin-Nusbaum, V., Brande, S., & Gambrell, L. (2020). Oral reading fluency , reading motivation and reading comprehension among second graders. Reading and Writing, 33, 1945-1970.

Nippold, M. (2015). Call for studies in implementation science: Improving reading comprehension in school-aged children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 46, 65-67.

Ouellette, G., & Harris, K. R. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Quinn, J. M., Wagner, R. K., Petscher, Y., & Lopez, D. (2015). Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A latent change score modeling study. Child Development, 86(1), 159-175.

Snow, C. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an r&d program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 

Stahl, S. A., McKenna, M. C, & Pagnucco, J. R. (1994). The effects of whole-language instruction: An update and a reappraisal. Educational Psychologist, 29, 275-186.

Steinle, P. K., Stevens, E., & Vaughn, S. (2022). Fluency interventions for struggling readers in grades 6 to 12: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 55(1), 3-21.

Tannenbaum, K. R., Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (2006). Relationships between word knowledge and reading comprehension in third-grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(4), 381-398.

Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2000). Reading fluency: Principles for instruction and progress monitoring. (Special education adaptation edition.) University of Texas at Austin, College of Education.

Wagner, R. K. & Ridgewell, C. (2009). A large-scale study of specific reading comprehension. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, Special Edition, 35 (5), 27-31.

Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., & Ciullo, S. (2010). Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: A synthesis of 20 years of research. Reading and Writing, 23(8), 889-912. 

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Maxim 6: One size does not fit all: use student data to differentiate your instruction. 

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Al-Abdallat, B. M., & Al-Samadi, J. M. (2016). A comparison of the effectiveness of the two strategies of direct and reciprocal instruction in improving the reading comprehension skills of students with learning difficulties in reading (dyslexia ). Studies: Educational Sciences, 43(1), 525-547.

Alqahtani, S. S. (2020). Technology-based interventions for children with reading difficulties: A literature review from 2010 to 2020. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3495-3525.

Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Clonan, S. M., Shaywitz, B. A., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2004). Effects of intensive reading remediation for second and third graders and a 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 444.

Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 386–406.

Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: Relative contributions of word recognition , language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 277-299.

Denton, C. A., & Hocker, J. L. (2006). Responsive reading instruction: Flexible intervention for struggling readers in the early grades. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Denton, C. A., & Mathes, P. G. (2003). Intervention for struggling readers: possibilities and challenges. In B. R. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: bringing science to scale (229–25.) Timonium, MD: York Press.

Ehri, L. C. (2003, March). Systematic phonics instruction: Findings of the National Reading Panel. [Presentation] Standards and Effectiveness Unit, Department for Education and Skills, British Government, London, Engliand.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Denton, C. A., Fuchs, L., & Vaughn, S. R. (2005). Multi-tiered reading instruction: Linking general education and special education. In S. O. Richardson & J. W. Gilger (Eds.), Research-based education and intervention: What we need to know, 21–43. Baltimore:  International Dyslexia Association.

Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Greenwood, C., Wills, H., Veerkamp, M., & Kaufman, J. (2008). Effects of small-group reading instruction and curriculum differences for students most at risk in kindergarten: Two-year results for secondary- and tertiary-level interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(2), 101-14.

Kuhn, M. R. (2020). Whole class or small group fluency instruction: A tutorial of four effective approaches. Education Sciences, 10(5), 145.

Maki, K. E., & Hammerschmidt-Snidarich, S. (2022). Reading fluency intervention dosage: A novel meta-analysis and research synthesis. Journal of School Psychology, 92, 148-165.

Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 148-182.

Mehta, P. D., Foorman, B. R., Branum-Martin, L., & Taylor, W. P. (2005). Literacy as a unidimensional multilevel construct: Validation, sources of influence, and implications in a longitudinal study in grades 1 to 4. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 85-116.

Moats, L. C. (1995). The missing foundation in teacher preparation. American Educator, 19(9), 43–51.

Moats, L. C., & Foorman, B. R. (2009). Literacy achievement in the primary grades in high poverty schools: Lessons learned from a five-year research program. In S. Neuman (Ed.), Literacy achievement for young children from poverty. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B. F., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286(3), 84-91.

Rasinski, T., Paige, D., Rains, C., Stewart, F., Julovich, B., Prenkert, D., Rupley, W.H., & Nichols, W. D. (2017). Effects of intensive fluency instruction on the reading proficiency of third-grade struggling readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 33(6), 519-532.

Reed, D. K., Zimmermann, L. M., Reeger, A. J., & Aloe, A. M. (2019). The effects of varied practice on the oral reading fluency of fourth-grade students. Journal of School Psychology, 77, 24-35.

Reynolds, B. L., & Ding, C. (2023). The predictive effects of reading speed and positive affect on first and second language incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading an authentic novel. Applied Linguistics Review.

Simmons, D. C., Kame’enui, E.J., Harn, B., Coyne, M. D., & et al. (2007). Attributes of effective and efficient kindergarten reading intervention: An examination of instructional time and design specificity. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(4), 331-47.

Solis, M., Miciak, J., Vaughn, S., & Fletcher, J. M. (2014). Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(4), 218-229.

Steinle, P. K., Stevens, E., & Vaughn, S. (2022). Fluency interventions for struggling readers in grades 6 to 12: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 55(1), 3-21.

Stevens, E. A., Vaughn, S., Swanson, E., & Scammacca, N. (2020). Examining the effects of a tier 2 reading comprehension intervention aligned to tier 1 instruction for fourth-grade struggling readers. Exceptional Children, 86(4), 430-448. 

Stevens, E. A., Walker, M. A., & Vaughn, S. (2017). The effects of reading fluency interventions on the reading fluency and reading comprehension performance of elementary students with learning disabilities: A synthesis of the research from 2001 to 2014. Journal of Learning  Disabilities, 50(5), 576– 590. 

Tilstra, J., McMaster, K., van den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., & Rapp, D. (2009). Simple but complex: Components of the simple view of reading across grade levels. Journal of Research in Reading, 32(4), 383– 401. 

Torgesen, J. K. (2006). Recent discoveries from research on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia . In M. Snowling and C. Hulme (Eds.). The science of reading: A handbook. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. 

Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K. S., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.

Tong, X., Deacon, S. H., Kirby, J. R., Cain, K., & Parrila, R. (2011). Morphological awareness: A key to understanding poor reading comprehension in English. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 523– 534. 

Tunmer, W. E., & Chapman, J. W. (2012). The simple view of reading redux: Vocabulary knowledge and the independent components hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(5), 453–466. 

Vaughn, S., Crinio, P. T., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Fletcher, J. M., Denton, C. D., et al. (2010). Response to intervention for middle school struggling readers: Effects of a primary and secondary intervention. School Psychology Review, 31, 2-21.

Vaughn, S., Weler, J., Leroux, A., Roberts, G., Denton, C., Barth, A., et al. (2012). Effects of intensive reading intervention for eighth grade students with persistently inadequate response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(6), 515-525.

Vellutino, F. R. (1991). Introduction to three studies on reading acquisition: Convergent findings on theoretical foundations of code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 437-443.

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E., Small, S., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601-638.

Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2008). Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: A longitudinal study.Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 407– 423. 

Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to varying amounts of time in reading intervention for students with low response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(2), 126-42.

Wasik, B., & Sl avis, R. E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 178-200.

Wright, T. S., & Cervetti, G. N. (2017). A systematic review of the research on vocabulary instruction that impacts text comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 52(2), 203– 226.

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Maxim 7: Direct, systematic instruction helps students develop the skills they need to become strong readers. Indirect, three-cueing instruction is  unpredictable in its impact on word reading and leaves too much to chance.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Adams, G. L., & Engelmann, S. (1996). Research on direct instruction: 25 years beyond DISTAR. Educational Achievement Systems.

Adams, M. J. (1998). The three-cueing system . In J. Osborn & F. Lehr (Eds.), Literacy for all: issues in teaching and learning. (pp.73–99). Guilford Press.

Barbash, S. (2012). Clear teaching: With direct instruction, Siegfried Engelmann discovered a better way of teaching. Education Consumers Foundation.

Becker W. C., Gersten R. (1982). A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the direct instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal. 19(1): 75–92.

Benner G. J., Nelson J. R., Stage S. A., Ralston N. C. (2010). The influence of fidelity of implementation on the reading outcomes of middle school students experiencing reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 32, 79–88.

Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Clonan, S. M., Shaywitz, B. A., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2004). Effects of intensive reading remediation for second and third graders and a 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 444.

Bruck, M. (1988). The word recognition and spelling of dysl exic children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 51-69. 

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Chall, J. S. (1983). Learning to read: The great debate (2nd ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapman, J. W., Tunmer, W. E., & Prochnow, J. E. (2001). Does success in the Reading Recovery program depend on developing proficiency in phonological-processing skills? A longitudinal study in a whole language instructional context . Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 141-176.

Coughlin C. (2014). Outcomes of Engelmann’s direct instruction : Research syntheses. In Stockard J. (Ed.), The science and success of Engelmann’s Direct Instruction, 25–5. Eugene, OR: NIFDI Press.

Cunningham, A. E. (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness . Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429–444.

Dahl, K. L., & Freppon, P. A. (1995). A comparison of inner-city children’s interpretations of reading and writing instruction in the early grades in skills-based and whole language classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 50-75.

Ehri, L.C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167–188. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0902_4

Ehri, L.C. (March 2003). Systematic phonics instruction: Findings of the National Reading Panel. [Presentation] Standards and Effectiveness Unit, Department for Education and Skills, British Government, London.

Ehri, L.C. (2020). The Science of Learning to Read Words: A Case for Systematic Phonics Instruction Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S1), S45–S60. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.334

Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Willows, D.M., Schuster, B.V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(3), 250–287. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Stahl, S.A., & Willows, D.M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Re­search, 71(3), 393–447. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071003393

Engelmann S., Becker W. C., Carnine D., Gersten R. (1988). The Direct Instruction Follow Through model: Design and outcomes. Education and Treatment of Children, 11, 303–317. 

Engelmann S., Carnine D. (1991). Theory of instruction: principles and applications (Rev. ed.) Eugene, OR: ADI Press. (Originally published 1982)

Fletcher, J. M., Denton, C. A., Fuchs, L., & Vaughn, S. R. (2005). Multi-tiered reading instruction: Linking general education and special education. In S. O. Richardson & J. W. Gilger (Eds.), Research-based education and intervention: What we need to know, 21–43. Baltimore:  International Dyslexia Association.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Savage, R., & Vaughn, S. (2021). A commentary on Bowers (2020) and the role of phonics instruction in reading. Educational Psychology Review, 33, 1249-1274.

Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding , reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10.

Jeynes, W. H., & Littell, S. W. (2000). A meta-analysis of studies examining the effect of whole language instruction on the literacy of low-SES students. Elementary School Journal, 101(1), 21-33.

Kim, Y. H., & Goetz, E. T. (1994). Context effects on word recognition and reading comprehension of poor and good readers: A test of the interactive-compensatory hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(2), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.2307/747810

Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.

Landi N., Perfetti C.A., Bolger D.J., Dunlap S., & Foorman B.R. (2006). The role of discourse context in developing word form representations: A paradoxical relation between reading and learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 94(2), 114–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.12.004

Liberman, I. Y., Liberman, A. M. (1990). Whole language vs. code emphasis: Underlying assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 40, 51–76 

Lloyd J., Cullinan D., Heins E. D., Epstein M. H. (1980). Direct instruction : Effects on oral and written language comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly3(4):70–76

Meyer L. A. (1984). Long-term academic effects of the Direct Instruction Project Follow Through. Elementary School Journal, 84(4), 380–394.

Moats, L. C. (2000). Whole language lives on: The illusion of” balanced” reading instruction. DIANE Publishing. Chicago 

Perfetti, C.A. (2007). Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 357–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430701530730 

Rayner, K., Foorman, B. F., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286(3), 84-91.

Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The work of the eyes. The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2(2), 31–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.00004

Rasinski, T. V. (2006). A brief history of reading fluency . In S. Samuels & A. Farstrup (Eds.) What research has to say about fluency instruction (pp. 70-93). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Rasinski, T. V., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25, 192-204. 

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N., Linek, W., & Sturtevant, E. (1994). Effects of fluency development on urban second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 158-164. 

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N. D., McKeon, C. A., Wilfong, L. G., Friedauer, J. A., & Heim, P. (2005). Is reading fluency a key for successful high school reading? Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 54, 22-27. 

Rasinski, T., Rikli, A., & Johnston, S. (2009). Reading fluency : More than automaticity ? More than a concern for the primary grades? Literacy Research and Instruction, 48, 350-361.

Rasinski, T., Samules, S. J., Hiebert, E., Petscher, Y., & Feller, K. (2011). The relationship between a silent reading fluency instructional protocol on students’ reading comprehension and achievement in an urban school setting. Reading Psychology, 32, 75-97.

Reis, S. M., McCoach, B. D., Coyne, M., Schreiber, F. J., Eckert, R. D., & Gubbins, J. E. (2007). Using planned enrichment strategies with direct instruction to improve reading fluency , comprehension, and attitude toward reading: an evidence-based study. Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 3-24.

Rosenshine B. (2012) Principles of instruction: Research-based strategies that all teachers should know. American Educator, 36(1):12–19. 

Rosenthal R. (1990) How are we doing in soft psychology? American Psychologist, 45(6), 775-777.

Schatz, E.K., & Baldwin, R.S. (1986). Context clues are unreliable predictors of word meanings. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 451.

Share, D.L. (1990). Self correction rates in oral reading: Indices of efficient reading or artifact of text difficulty? Educational Psychology, 10, 181-186. 

Sl ocum, T. & Rolf, K. R. (2021). Features of direct instruction : Content analysis. Behavior Analysis in Practice. 14(3), 775–784.

Stahl, S. A., McKenna, M. C, & Pagnucco, J. R. (1994). The effects of whole-language instruction: An update and a reappraisal. Educational Psychologist, 29,275-186.

Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Concepts in developmental theories of reading skill: Cognitive resources, automaticity , and modularity. Developmental Review, 10, 72-100.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.

Stanovich, K.E. (1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291. http://www.keithstanovich.com/Site/Research_on_Reading_files/RdTch93.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency . Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32–71

Stanovich, K. (1982). Individual differences in the cognitive processes of reading: I. Word decoding . Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 485–493.

Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Word recognition : Changing perspectives. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 418–452). New York: Longman.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1983). On priming by a sentence context . Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.112.1.1

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Feeman, D. J. (1981). A longitudinal study of sentence context effects in second-grade children: Tests of an interactive-compensatory model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 32, 185-199.

Stockard, J. (2010). Promoting reading achievement and countering the “fourth-grade sl ump”: The impact of direct instruction on reading achievement in fifth grade. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15(3):218–240.

Stockard, J. (2011) Increasing reading skills in rural areas: An analysis of three school districts. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(8):1–19. 

Stockard, J., Wood T. W., Coughlin, C., & Rasplica Khoury, C. (Eds) (2018).  The effectiveness of direct instruction curricula: A meta-analysis of a half century of research. Review of Educational Research, 88(4):479–507.

Vellutino, F. (1978). Toward an understanding of dyslexia : Psychological factors in specific reading disability. In Benton, A. L., and Pearl, D. (eds.), Dyslexia, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 59–111.

Vellutino, F., & Scanlon, D. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological awareness , and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 321–363.

Vellutino, F. R. (1991). Introduction to three studies on reading acquisitions: Convergent findings on theoretical foundations of code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), 437-443. 

White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of Direct Instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11, 364–374.

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Maxim 8: These maxims apply to English Learners/Emergent Bilingual s, who often need extra support to bolster their oral language as they learn to read and write in a new language.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Center for Applied Linguistic s, Lawrence Eribaum Associates: Mahway, NJ.

Aukerman, M., & Schuldt, L. C. (2021). What matters most? Toward a robust and socially just science of reading, Reading Research Quarterly, 56(S1), 85-103).

Bengochea, A., & Sembiante, S. F., (2023)., A review of the methodological characteristics of vocabulary interventions for emergent bilingual s in preschool to sixth grade. Review of Education, 11(1).

Bratlie, S. S., Gustafsson, J., Torkildsen, J. V. (2021). Effectiveness of a classroom‐implemented, app‐based morphology program for language‐minority students: Examining latent language‐literacy profiles and context ual factors as moderators. Reading Research Quarterly, 57(3), 805-829. 

Crosson, A. C., & Silverman, R. D. (2021). Impact of COVID‐19 on early literacy instruction for emergent bilingual s. Reading Research Quarterly, 57(1), 5-14. 

Ehri, L. C., Dreyer, L. G., Flugman, B., & Gross, A. (2007). Reading Rescue: An effective tutor-ing intervention model for language-minority students who are struggling readers in first grade. American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), 414–448. 

Goldenberg, C. (2013). Reading wars, reading science, and English learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S), 131-144. 

Goldenberg, C. & Cardenas-Hagan, E. (2023, Jan/Feb). Literacy research on English learners: Past, present, and future. The Reading League Journal, 12-21. 

Goodwin, A. P., & Jiménez, R. T. (2021). The science of reading: Supports, critiques, and questions. Reading Research Quarterly, 56, S7-S22. 

Jensen, B. (2021). Advancing the science of teaching reading equitably. Reading Research Quarterly, 56(S1) 69-84.

Li, P., & Clariana, R. B. (2019). Reading comprehension in L1 and L2: An integrative approach. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50, 94-105. 

Long, S., Volpe, R. J., & Briesch, A. M. (2022). Evaluation of a computer‐assisted letter sound tutoring program: An application to preschool English language learners. Psychology in the Schools, 60(3), 658-678.

Mancilla‐Martinez, J., Hwang, J. K., Oh, M. H. (2021). Assessment selection for multilingual learners’ reading development. The Reading Teacher, 75(3), 351-362. 

Raudszus, H., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2019). Situation model building ability uniquely predicts first and second language reading comprehension. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50 106-119.

Saunders, W., Goldenberg, C., & Marcellett, D. (2013). Guidelines for English language development instruction. American Educator, 37 (2), 13-25, 38-39.

Vargas, I., Hall, C., & Solari, E. (2021, Sept/Oct). Brick by brick: Landmark studies on reading development, assessment, and instruction for students who are English learners. The Reading League Journal, 37-41. 

Vaughn, S., Mathes, P., Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P., Carlson, C., Pollard-Durodola, S., Cardenas- Hagan, E., & Francis, D. (2006). Effectiveness of an English intervention for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading problems. Elementary School Journal, 107(2), 153-180.

Verhoeven, L., Perfetti, C., & Pugh, K. (2019). Cross-linguistic perspectives on second language reading. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50, 1-6.

Verhoeven, L., Voeten, M., & Vermeer, A. (2019). Beyond the simple view of early first and second language reading: the impact of lexical quality. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50(S1), 119-129. 

Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192Wagner, R.K., Torgesen, J.K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73–87. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.30.1.73

Yaden, D.B., Reinking, D., & Smagorinsky, P. (2021). The trouble with binaries: A perspective on the science of reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 56(S1), S119-S129.

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Maxim 9: We should support students who speak languages or dialects other than General American English at home, by honoring their home language and by giving them expanded opportunities to engage with General American English text.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Seidenberg, M. & MacDonald, M. (2018). The impact of language experience on language and reading. Topics in Language Disorders (38)1, 66-83.  

Vaughn, S., Mathes, P. G., Linan-Thompson, S., & Francis, D. J. (2005). Teaching english language learners at risk for reading disabilities to read: Putting research into practice.  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20 (10), 58-67.

Washington, J. A., Branum-Martin, L., Sun, C., & Lee-James, R. (2018). The impact of dialect density on the growth of language and reading in African American children. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, (49)2: 232-247.

Washington, J. & Seidenberg, M. (2021). Teaching reading to African American children: When home and school language differ American Educator, (Summer): 26-40

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Maxim 10: To become good readers and writers, students need to integrate many skills that are built over time.

The following peer-reviewed research supports the above maxim.

Barth, A. E, Catts, H. W., & Anthony, J. L. (2009) The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers: a latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing, 22, 567-590.

Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Clonan, S. M., Shaywitz, B. A., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2004). Effects of intensive reading remediation for second and third graders and a 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 444.

Bowers, J. S., & Bowers, P. N. (2017). Beyond phonics : The case for teaching children the logic of the English spelling system. Educational Psychologist, 52, 124–141. 2017

Bowers, J., and Bowers, P. N. (in press). Progress in reading instruction requires a better understanding of the English spelling system. Current Directions in Psychological Science

Catts, H. W., Hogan, T. P., & Adlof, S. M. (2005). Developmental changes in reading and reading disabilities. In H. W. Catts & A. G. Kamhi (Eds.), The connections between language and reading disabilities, (pp.25–40.), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42. 

Chall, J. S. (1967). Learning to read: The great debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chall, J. S. (1983). The Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: Relative contributions of word recognition , language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 277-299.

Cutting, L. E., Materek, A., Cole, C., Levine, T. M., & Mahone, E. M. (2009). Effects of fluency , oral language , and executive function on reading comprehension performance. Annals of Dyslexia, 59, 34-54. 

Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Katch, L. E. (2004). Beyond the reading wars: Exploring the effect of child-instruction interactions on growth in early reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 305-336

Cunningham, A. E. & Stanovich, K. (1997) Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33 (6), 934-945.

Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F. B., Zeffiro, T. A., Dietz, N. A. E., Agnew, J. A., & Flowers, D. L. (2004). Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia . Neuron, 44 (3), 411-422.

Ferrer, E., Shaywitz, B. A., Holahan, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Michaels, R., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2015). Achievement gap in reading is present as early as first grade and persists through adolescence. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167(5), 1121-1125.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2019). Learning disabilities: from identification to intervention (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Barnes, M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Olson, R. K., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A., 2002. Classification of learning disabilities: An evidence-based evaluation. In R.Bradley, L. Danielson., & D.P. Hallahan, D. P. (Eds.). (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. (pp. 185-250). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 3.

Gelzheiser, L. M., Scanlon, D., Vellutino, F., Hallgren-Flynn, L., & Schatschneider, C. (2011). Effects of the interactive strategies approach—extended: A responsive and comprehensive intervention for intermediate-grade struggling readers. Elementary School Journal, 112(2), 280–306.

Graham, S., Liu, X., Aitken, A., Ng, C., Bartl ett, B., Harris, K., & Holzapfel, J. (2017). Effectiveness of literacy programs balancing reading and writing instruction: A meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(3), 279-304.

Graham, S. (2020). The sciences of reading and writing must become more fully integrated. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(51), 535-544. 

Guthrie, J. T., McRae, A., Coddington, C. S., Lutz Klauda, S., Wigfield, A., & Barbosa, P. ( 2009).  Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 195-214.

Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deshler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J., Mark, C. A., et al. (2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools? Learning Disability Quarterly, 32, 21-38.

Joseph, L. M., & Schisl er, R. (2009). Should adolescents go back to the basics? A review of teaching word reading skills to middle and high school students. Remedial and Special Education, 30 (3), 131- 147.

Leppänen, U., Aunola, K., Niemi, P., Nurmi, J. (2008). Letter knowledge predicts Grade 4 reading fluency and reading comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 18(6), 548- 564.

Moats, L. (2001). When older kids can’t read. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 36-40.

Moats, L. C., & Foorman, B. R. (2009). Literacy achievement in the primary grades in high poverty schools: Lessons learned from a five-year research program. In S. Neuman (Ed.), Literacy achievement for young children from poverty. (pp. 91-111) Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Nouwens, S., Groen, M. A., Kleemans, T., & Verhoeven, L. (2020). How executive functions contribute to reading comprehension. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 169–192. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32441782/

Oakhill, J. & Cain, K. (2012) The precursors of reading ability in young readers: Evidence from a four-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(2), 91-121.

Petscher, Y., Cabell, S.Q., Catts, H.W., Compton, D.L., Foorman, B.R., Hart, S.A., Lonigan, C.J., Phillips, B.M., Schatschneider, C., Steacy, L.M., Terry, N.P., & Wagner, R.K. (2020). How the Science of Reading Informs 21st-Century Education. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S1), S267-S282. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.352

Roman, A. A., Kirby, J.R. Parrila, R. K., Wade-Woolley, L, Deacon, S. H. (2009) Toward a comprehensive view of the skills involved in word reading in Grades 4, 6, and 8. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102(1), 96-113.

Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Carlson, C. D., & Foorman, B. R. (2004). Kindergarten prediction of reading skills: A longitudinal comparative analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 265-282. 

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Contributors: Jane Ashby, Louise Dechovitz, Linda Diamond, Jan Hasbrouck, Kari Kurto, and Julie Washington

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