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Reading Universe Taxonomy

Our taxonomy presents the essential reading skills, shows how they're connected, and lays the groundwork for teaching all students how to read and write.

The Simple View of Reading

Word Recognition x Language Comprehension = Reading Comprehension

The ability to see a word and know how to pronounce it without consciously thinking about it

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A group of skills that enable you to recognize and manipulate parts of spoken words

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A method for teaching children the relationship between spoken sounds and written letters so they can learn to decode and encode

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The ability to understand the meaning of spoken words

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The ability to understand the meaning of printed text

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Reading Universe is made possible by generous support from Jim & Donna Barksdale, the American Federation of Teachers, the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, and three anonymous donors.

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